TY - CONF
AB - The design of ecient search structures for peer-to-peer systems has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In this announcement we address the problem of nding the predecessor in a key set and present an ecient data structure called hashed Predecessor Patricia trie. Our hashed Predecessor Patricia trie supports PredecessorSearch(x) and Insert(x) and Delete(x) in O(log log u) hash table accesses when u is the size of the universe of the keys. That is the costs only depend on u and not the size of the data structure. One feature of our approach is that it only uses the lookup interface of the hash table and therefore hash table accesses may be realized by any distributed hash table (DHT).
AU - Kniesburges, Sebastian
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 626
T2 - Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC)
TI - Brief Announcement: Hashed Predecessor Patricia Trie - A Data Structure for Efficient Predecessor Queries in Peer-to-Peer Systems
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Small-world networks have received significant attention because of their potential as models for the interaction networks of complex systems. Specifically, neither random networks nor regular lattices seem to be an adequate framework within which to study real-world complex systems such as chemical-reaction networks, neural networks, food webs, social networks, scientific-collaboration networks, and computer networks. Small-world networks provide some desired properties like an expected polylogarithmic distance between two processes in the network, which allows routing in polylogarithmic hops by simple greedy routing, and robustness against attacks or failures. By these properties, small-world networks are possible solutions for large overlay networks comparable to structured overlay networks like CAN, Pastry, Chord, which also provide polylogarithmic routing, but due to their uniform structure, structured overlay networks are more vulnerable to attacks or failures. In this paper we bring together a randomized process converging to a small-world network and a self-stabilization process so that a small-world network is formed out of any weakly connected initial state. To the best of our knowledge this is the first distributed self-stabilization process for building a small-world network.
AU - Kniesburges, Sebastian
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 640
T2 - Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS)
TI - A Self-Stabilization Process for Small-World Networks
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This paper initiates the formal study of a fundamental problem: How to efficiently allocate a shared communication medium among a set of K co-existing networks in the presence of arbitrary external interference? While most literature on medium access focuses on how to share a medium among nodes, these approaches are often either not directly applicable to co-existing networks as they would violate the independence requirement, or they yield a low throughput if applied to multiple networks. We present the randomized medium access (MAC) protocol COMAC which guarantees that a given communication channel is shared fairly among competing and independent networks, and that the available bandwidth is used efficiently. These performance guarantees hold in the presence of arbitrary external interference or even under adversarial jamming. Concretely, we show that the co-existing networks can use a Ω(ε2 min{ε, 1/poly(K)})-fraction of the non-jammed time steps for successful message transmissions, where ε is the (arbitrarily distributed) fraction of time which is not jammed.
AU - Richa, Andrea W.
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Zhang, Jin
ID - 623
T2 - Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM SIGACT-SIGOPS Symposium on Principles and Distributed Computing (PODC)
TI - Competitive and fair throughput for co-existing networks under adversarial interference
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - W. Richa, Andr{\'{e}}a
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Zhang, Jin
ID - 1868
IS - 3
JF - Distributed Computing
TI - Competitive throughput in multi-hop wireless networks despite adaptive jamming
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Mohd Nor, Rizal
AU - Nesterenko, Mikhail
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 1870
JF - Theor. Comput. Sci.
TI - Corona: A stabilizing deterministic message-passing skip list
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider the problem of managing a dynamic heterogeneous storagesystem in a distributed way so that the amount of data assigned to a hostin that system is related to its capacity. Two central problems have to be solvedfor this: (1) organizing the hosts in an overlay network with low degree and diameterso that one can efficiently check the correct distribution of the data androute between any two hosts, and (2) distributing the data among the hosts so thatthe distribution respects the capacities of the hosts and can easily be adapted asthe set of hosts or their capacities change. We present distributed protocols forthese problems that are self-stabilizing and that do not need any global knowledgeabout the system such as the number of nodes or the overall capacity of thesystem. Prior to this work no solution was known satisfying these properties.
AU - Kniesburges, Sebastian
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 542
T2 - Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC)
TI - CONE-DHT: A distributed self-stabilizing algorithm for a heterogeneous storage system
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Zhang, Jin
ID - 1871
IS - 3
JF - IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.
TI - An Efficient and Fair MAC Protocol Robust to Reactive Interference
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This paper initiates the study of self-adjusting networks (or distributed data structures) whose topologies dynamically adapt to a communication pattern $\sigma$. We present a fully decentralized self-adjusting solution called SplayNet. A SplayNet is a distributed generalization of the classic splay tree concept. It ensures short paths (which can be found using local-greedy routing) between communication partners while minimizing topological rearrangements. We derive an upper bound for the amortized communication cost of a SplayNet based on empirical entropies of $\sigma$, and show that SplayNets have several interesting convergence properties. For instance, SplayNets features a provable online optimality under special requests scenarios. We also investigate the optimal static network and prove different lower bounds for the average communication cost based on graph cuts and on the empirical entropy of the communication pattern $\sigma$. From these lower bounds it follows, e.g., that SplayNets are optimal in scenarios where the requests follow a product distribution as well. Finally, this paper shows that in contrast to the Minimum Linear Arrangement problem which is generally NP-hard, the optimal static tree network can be computed in polynomial time for any guest graph, despite the exponentially large graph family. We complement our formal analysis with a small simulation study on a Facebook graph.
AU - Avin, Chen
AU - Häupler, Bernhard
AU - Lotker, Zvi
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
ID - 513
T2 - Proceedings of the 27th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS)
TI - Locally Self-Adjusting Tree Networks
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this work we present the first scalable distributed information system,i.e., a system with low storage overhead, that is provably robust againstDenial-of-Service (DoS) attacks by a current insider. We allow acurrent insider to have complete knowledge about the information systemand to have the power to block any \epsilon-fraction of its serversby a DoS-attack, where \epsilon can be chosen up to a constant. The taskof the system is to serve any collection of lookup requests with at most oneper non-blocked server in an efficient way despite this attack. Previously,scalable solutions were only known for DoS-attacks of past insiders, where apast insider only has complete knowledge about some past time pointt_0 of the information system. Scheideler et al. (DISC 2007, SPAA 2009) showedthat in this case it is possible to design an information system so that anyinformation that was inserted or last updated after t_0 is safe against a DoS-attack. But their constructions would not work at all for a current insider. The key idea behindour IRIS system is to make extensive use of coding. More precisely, we presenttwo alternative distributed coding strategies with an at most logarithmicstorage overhead that can handle up to a constant fraction of blocked servers.
AU - Eikel, Martina
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 519
T2 - Proceedings of the 25th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA)
TI - IRIS: A Robust Information System Against Insider DoS-Attacks
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider the problem of resource discovery in distributed systems. In particular we give an algorithm, such that each node in a network discovers the add ress of any other node in the network. We model the knowledge of the nodes as a virtual overlay network given by a directed graph such that complete knowledge of all nodes corresponds to a complete graph in the overlay network. Although there are several solutions for resource discovery, our solution is the first that achieves worst-case optimal work for each node, i.e. the number of addresses (O(n)) or bits (O(nlogn)) a node receives or sendscoincides with the lower bound, while ensuring only a linearruntime (O(n)) on the number of rounds.
AU - Kniesburges, Sebastian
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 564
T2 - Proceedings of 20th International Colloqium on Structural Information and Communication Complexity (SIROCCO)
TI - A Deterministic Worst-Case Message Complexity Optimal Solution for Resource Discovery
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - An elementary h-route ow, for an integer h 1, is a set of h edge- disjoint paths between a source and a sink, each path carrying a unit of ow, and an h-route ow is a non-negative linear combination of elementary h-routeows. An h-route cut is a set of edges whose removal decreases the maximum h-route ow between a given source-sink pair (or between every source-sink pair in the multicommodity setting) to zero. The main result of this paper is an approximate duality theorem for multicommodity h-route cuts and ows, for h 3: The size of a minimum h-route cut is at least f=h and at most O(log4 k f) where f is the size of the maximum h-routeow and k is the number of commodities. The main step towards the proof of this duality is the design and analysis of a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the minimum h-route cut problem for h = 3 that has an approximation ratio of O(log4 k). Previously, polylogarithmic approximation was known only for h-route cuts for h 2. A key ingredient of our algorithm is a novel rounding technique that we call multilevel ball-growing. Though the proof of the duality relies on this algorithm, it is not a straightforward corollary of it as in the case of classical multicommodity ows and cuts. Similar results are shown also for the sparsest multiroute cut problem.
AU - Kolman, Petr
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 476
IS - 2
JF - Theory of Computing Systems
TI - Towards Duality of Multicommodity Multiroute Cuts and Flows: Multilevel Ball-Growing
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Derakhshandeh, Zahra
AU - Dolev, Shlomi
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 1863
SN - 978-1-4503-2821-0
T2 - 26th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, SPAA'14, Prague, Czech Republic - June 23 - 25, 2014
TI - Brief announcement: amoebot - a new model for programmable matter
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this work we present the first distributed storage system that is provably robust against crash failures issued by an adaptive adversary, i.e., for each batch of requests the adversary can decide based on the entire system state which servers will be unavailable for that batch of requests. Despite up to \gamma n^{1/\log\log n} crashed servers, with \gamma>0 constant and n denoting the number of servers, our system can correctly process any batch of lookup and write requests (with at most a polylogarithmic number of requests issued at each non-crashed server) in at most a polylogarithmic number of communication rounds, with at most polylogarithmic time and work at each server and only a logarithmic storage overhead. Our system is based on previous work by Eikel and Scheideler (SPAA 2013), who presented IRIS, a distributed information system that is provably robust against the same kind of crash failures. However, IRIS is only able to serve lookup requests. Handling both lookup and write requests has turned out to require major changes in the design of IRIS.
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Setzer, Alexander
AU - Eikel, Martina
ID - 371
T2 - Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS)
TI - RoBuSt: A Crash-Failure-Resistant Distributed Storage System
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This paper considers the problem of how to efficiently share a wireless medium which is subject to harsh external interference or even jamming. While this problem has already been studied intensively for simplistic single-hop or unit disk graph models, we make a leap forward and study MAC protocols for the SINR interference model (a.k.a. the physical model). We make two contributions. First, we introduce a new adversarial SINR model which captures a wide range of interference phenomena. Concretely, we consider a powerful, adaptive adversary which can jam nodes at arbitrary times and which is only limited by some energy budget. The second contribution of this paper is a distributed MAC protocol which provably achieves a constant competitive throughput in this environment: we show that, with high probability, the protocol ensures that a constant fraction of the non-blocked time periods is used for successful transmissions.
AU - Ogierman, Adrian
AU - Richa, Andrea W.
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Zhang, Jin
ID - 446
T2 - Proceedings of the 33rd Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM)
TI - Competitive MAC under adversarial SINR
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this survey article, we discuss two algorithmic research areas that emerge from problems that arise when resources are offered in the cloud. The first area, online leasing, captures problems arising from the fact that resources in the cloud are not bought, but leased by cloud vendors. The second area, Distributed Storage Systems, deals with problems arising from so-called cloud federations, i.e., when several cloud providers are needed to fulfill a given task.
AU - Kniesburges, Sebastian
AU - Markarian, Christine
AU - Meyer auf der Heide, Friedhelm
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 459
T2 - Proceedings of the 21st International Colloquium on Structural Information and Communication Complexity (SIROCCO)
TI - Algorithmic Aspects of Resource Management in the Cloud
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Jacob, Riko
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Täubig, Hanjo
ID - 1858
IS - 6
JF - J. ACM
TI - SKIP*: A Self-Stabilizing Skip Graph
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this paper we present and analyze HSkip+, a self-stabilizing overlay network for nodes with arbitrary heterogeneous bandwidths. HSkip+ has the same topology as the Skip+ graph proposed by Jacob et al. [PODC 2009] but its self-stabilization mechanism significantly outperforms the self-stabilization mechanism proposed for Skip+. Also, the nodes are now ordered according to their bandwidths and not according to their identifiers. Various other solutions have already been proposed for overlay networks with heterogeneous bandwidths, but they are not self-stabilizing. In addition to HSkip+ being self-stabilizing, its performance is on par with the best previous bounds on the time and work for joining or leaving a network of peers of logarithmic diameter and degree and arbitrary bandwidths. Also, the dilation and congestion for routing messages is on par with the best previous bounds for such networks, so that HSkip+ combines the advantages of both worlds. Our theoretical investigations are backed by simulations demonstrating that HSkip+ is indeed performing much better than Skip+ and working correctly under high churn rates.
AU - Feldotto, Matthias
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Graffi, Kalman
ID - 412
T2 - Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P)
TI - HSkip+: A Self-Stabilizing Overlay Network for Nodes with Heterogeneous Bandwidths
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a factor $14D^2$ approximation algorithm for the minimum linear arrangement problem on series-parallel graphs, where $D$ is the maximum degree in the graph. Given a suitable decomposition of the graph, our algorithm runs in time $O(|E|)$ and is very easy to implement. Its divide-and-conquer approach allows for an effective parallelization. Note that a suitable decomposition can also be computed in time $O(|E|\log{|E|})$ (or even $O(\log{|E|}\log^*{|E|})$ on an EREW PRAM using $O(|E|)$ processors). For the proof of the approximation ratio, we use a sophisticated charging method that uses techniques similar to amortized analysis in advanced data structures. On general graphs, the minimum linear arrangement problem is known to be NP-hard. To the best of our knowledge, the minimum linear arrangement problem on series-parallel graphs has not been studied before.
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Eikel, Martina
AU - Setzer, Alexander
ID - 397
T2 - Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Approximation and Online Algorithms (WAOA)
TI - Minimum Linear Arrangement of Series-Parallel Graphs
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The Chord peer-to-peer system is considered, together with CAN, Tapestry and Pastry, as one of the pioneering works on peer-to-peer distributed hash tables (DHT) that inspired a large volume of papers and projects on DHTs as well as peer-to-peer systems in general. Chord, in particular, has been studied thoroughly, and many variants of Chord have been presented that optimize various criteria. Also, several implementations of Chord are available on various platforms. Though Chord is known to be very efficient and scalable and it can handle churn quite well, no protocol is known yet that guarantees that Chord is self-stabilizing, i.e., the Chord network can be recovered from any initial state in which the network is still weakly connected. This is not too surprising since it is known that the Chord network is not locally checkable for its current topology. We present a slight extension of the Chord network, called Re-Chord (reactive Chord), that turns out to be locally checkable, and we present a self-stabilizing distributed protocol for it that can recover the Re-Chord network from any initial state, in which the n peers are weakly connected, in O(nlogn) communication rounds. We also show that our protocol allows a new peer to join or an old peer to leave an already stable Re-Chord network so that within O(logn)^2) communication rounds the Re-Chord network is stable again.
AU - Kniesburges, Sebastian
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 378
IS - 3
JF - Theory of Computing Systems
TI - Re-Chord: A Self-stabilizing Chord Overlay Network
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A fundamental problem for peer-to-peer systems is to maintain connectivity while nodes are leaving, i.e., the nodes requesting to leave the peer-to-peer system are excluded from the overlay network without affecting its connectivity. There are a number of studies for safe node exclusion if the overlay is in a well-defined state initially. Surprisingly, the problem is not formally studied yet for the case in which the overlay network is in an arbitrary initial state, i.e., when looking for a self-stabilizing solution for excluding leaving nodes. We study this problem in two variants: the Finite Departure Problem (FDP) ) and the Finite Sleep Problem (FSP). In the FDP the leaving nodes have to irrevocably decide when it is safe to leave the network, whereas in the FSP, this leaving decision does not have to be final: the nodes may resume computation if necessary. We show that there is no self-stabilizing distributed algorithm for the FDP, even in a synchronous message passing model. To allow a solution, we introduce an oracle called NIDEC and show that it is sufficient even for the asynchronous message passing model by proposing an algorithm that can solve the FDP using NIDEC. We also show that a solution to the FSP does not require an oracle.
AU - Foreback, Dianne
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Nesterenko, Mikhail
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 393
T2 - Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems
TI - On Stabilizing Departures in Overlay Networks
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This article studies the design of medium access control (MAC) protocols for wireless networks that are provably robust against arbitrary and unpredictable disruptions (e.g., due to unintentional external interference from co-existing networks or due to jamming). We consider a wireless network consisting of a set of n honest and reliable nodes within transmission (and interference) range of each other, and we model the external disruptions with a powerful adaptive adversary. This adversary may know the protocol and its entire history and can use this knowledge to jam the wireless channel at will at any time. It is allowed to jam a (1 − )-fraction of the timesteps, for an arbitrary constant > 0 unknown to the nodes. The nodes cannot distinguish between the adversarial jamming or a collision of two or more messages that are sent at the same time. We demonstrate, for the first time, that there is a local-control MAC protocol requiring only very limited knowledge about the adversary and the network that achieves a constant (asymptotically optimal) throughput for the nonjammed time periods under any of the aforementioned adversarial strategies. The derived principles are also useful to build robust applications on top of the MAC layer, and we present an exemplary study for leader election, one of the most fundamental tasks in distributed computing.
AU - Awerbuch, Baruch
AU - Richa, Andrea W.
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Zhang, Jin
ID - 387
IS - 4
JF - Transactions on Algorithms
TI - Principles of Robust Medium Access and an Application to Leader Election
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Topological self-stabilization is an important concept to build robust open distributed systems (such as peer-to-peer systems) where nodes can organize themselves into meaningful network topologies. The goal is to devise distributed algorithms where nodes forward, insert, and delete links to neighboring nodes, and that converge quickly to such a desirable topology, independently of the initial network configuration. This article proposes a new model to study the parallel convergence time. Our model sheds light on the achievable parallelism by avoiding bottlenecks of existing models that can yield a distorted picture. As a case study, we consider local graph linearization—i.e., how to build a sorted list of the nodes of a connected graph in a distributed and self-stabilizing manner. In order to study the main structure and properties of our model, we propose two variants of a most simple local linearization algorithm. For each of these variants, we present analyses of the worst-case and bestcase parallel time complexities, as well as the performance under a greedy selection of the actions to be executed. It turns out that the analysis is non-trivial despite the simple setting, and to complement our formal insights we report on our experiments which indicate that the runtimes may be better in the average case.
AU - Gall, Dominik
AU - Jacob, Riko
AU - Richa, Andrea W.
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Täubig, Hanjo
ID - 464
IS - 1
JF - Theory of Computing Systems
TI - A Note on the Parallel Runtime of Self-Stabilizing Graph Linearization
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Derakhshandeh, Zahra
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 1851
SN - 978-1-4503-3674-1
T2 - Proceedings of the Second Annual International Conference on Nanoscale Computing and Communication, NANOCOM' 15, Boston, MA, USA, September 21-22, 2015
TI - An Algorithmic Framework for Shape Formation Problems in Self-Organizing Particle Systems
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Derakhshandeh, Zahra
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
AU - A. Bazzi, Rida
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 1852
SN - 978-1-4503-3617-8
T2 - Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC 2015, Donostia-San Sebasti{\'{a}}n, Spain, July 21 - 23, 2015
TI - Brief Announcement: On the Feasibility of Leader Election and Shape Formation with Self-Organizing Programmable Matter
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the problem of resource discovery in distributed systems. In particular we give an algorithm, such that each node in a network discovers the address of any other node in the network. We model the knowledge of the nodes as a virtual overlay network given by a directed graph such that complete knowledge of all nodes corresponds to a complete graph in the overlay network. Although there are several solutions for resource discovery, our solution is the first that achieves worst-case optimal work for each node, i.e. the number of addresses (O(n)O(n)) or bits (O(nlogn)O(nlogn)) a node receives or sends coincides with the lower bound, while ensuring only a linear runtime (O(n)O(n)) on the number of rounds.
AU - Kniesburges, Sebastian
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 327
JF - Theoretical Computer Science
TI - A deterministic worst-case message complexity optimal solution for resource discovery
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Distributed applications are commonly based on overlay networks interconnecting their sites so that they can exchange information. For these overlay networks to preserve their functionality, they should be able to recover from various problems like membership changes or faults. Various self-stabilizing overlay networks have already been proposed in recent years, which have the advantage of being able to recover from any illegal state, but none of these networks can give any guarantees on its functionality while the recovery process is going on. We initiate research on overlay networks that are not only self-stabilizing but that also ensure that searchability is maintained while the recovery process is going on, as long as there are no corrupted messages in the system. More precisely, once a search message from node u to another node v is successfully delivered, all future search messages from u to v succeed as well. We call this property monotonic searchability. We show that in general it is impossible to provide monotonic searchability if corrupted messages are present in the system, which justifies the restriction to system states without corrupted messages. Furthermore, we provide a self-stabilizing protocol for the line for which we can also show monotonic searchability. It turns out that even for the line it is non-trivial to achieve this property. Additionally, we extend our protocol to deal with node departures in terms of the Finite Departure Problem of Foreback et. al (SSS 2014). This makes our protocol even capable of handling node dynamics.
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Setzer, Alexander
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 241
T2 - Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS)
TI - Towards Establishing Monotonic Searchability in Self-Stabilizing Data Structures
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 1853
SN - 978-1-4503-3588-1
T2 - Proceedings of the 27th ACM on Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, SPAA 2015, Portland, OR, USA, June 13-15, 2015
TI - Brief Announcement: Towards a Universal Approach for the Finite Departure Problem in Overlay Networks
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this work, we present the first scalable distributed information system, that is, a system with low storage overhead, that is provably robust against denial-of-service (DoS) attacks by a current insider. We allow a current insider to have complete knowledge about the information system and to have the power to block any ϵ-fraction of its servers by a DoS attack, where ϵ can be chosen up to a constant. The task of the system is to serve any collection of lookup requests with at most one per nonblocked server in an efficient way despite this attack. Previously, scalable solutions were only known for DoS attacks of past insiders, where a past insider only has complete knowledge about some past time point t0 of the information system. Scheideler et al. [Awerbuch and Scheideler 2007; Baumgart et al. 2009] showed that in this case, it is possible to design an information system so that any information that was inserted or last updated after t0 is safe against a DoS attack. But their constructions would not work at all for a current insider. The key idea behind our IRIS system is to make extensive use of coding. More precisely, we present two alternative distributed coding strategies with an at most logarithmic storage overhead that can handle up to a constant fraction of blocked servers.
AU - Eikel, Martina
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 284
IS - 3
JF - Transactions on Parallel Computing
TI - IRIS: A Robust Information System Against Insider DoS Attacks
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A fundamental problem for overlay networks is to safely exclude leaving nodes, i.e., the nodes requesting to leave the overlay network are excluded from it without affecting its connectivity. There are a number of studies for safe node exclusion if the overlay is in a well-defined state, but almost no formal results are known for the case in which the overlay network is in an arbitrary initial state, i.e., when looking for a self-stabilizing solution for excluding leaving nodes. We study this problem in two variants: the Finite Departure Problem (FDP) and the Finite Sleep Problem (FSP). In the FDP the leaving nodes have to irrevocably decide when it is safe to leave the network, whereas in the FSP, this leaving decision does not have to be final: the nodes may resume computation when woken up by an incoming message. We are the first to present a self-stabilizing protocol for the FDP and the FSP that can be combined with a large class of overlay maintenance protocols so that these are then guaranteed to safely exclude leaving nodes from the system from any initial state while operating as specified for the staying nodes. In order to formally define the properties these overlay maintenance protocols have to satisfy, we identify four basic primitives for manipulating edges in an overlay network that might be of independent interest.
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 242
T2 - Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS)
TI - Towards a Universal Approach for the Finite Departure Problem in Overlay Networks
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Derakhshandeh, Zahra
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
AU - A. Bazzi, Rida
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 1850
SN - 978-3-319-21998-1
T2 - DNA Computing and Molecular Programming - 21st International Conference, DNA 21, Boston and Cambridge, MA, USA, August 17-21, 2015. Proceedings
TI - Leader Election and Shape Formation with Self-organizing Programmable Matter
VL - 9211
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a self-stabilizing algorithm for overlay networks that, for an arbitrary metric given by a distance oracle, constructs the graph representing that metric. The graph representing a metric is the unique minimal undirected graph such that for any pair of nodes the length of a shortest path between the nodes corresponds to the distance between the nodes according to the metric. The algorithm works under both an asynchronous and a synchronous daemon. In the synchronous case, the algorithm stablizes in time O(n) and it is almost silent in that after stabilization a node sends and receives a constant number of messages per round.
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - Lefèvre, Jonas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 155
T2 - Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS)
TI - Self-stabilizing Metric Graphs
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Derakhshandeh, Zahra
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 1837
T2 - Proceedings of the 28th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, SPAA 2016, Asilomar State Beach/Pacific Grove, CA, USA, July 11-13, 2016
TI - Universal Shape Formation for Programmable Matter
ER -
TY - CHAP
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 1845
T2 - Encyclopedia of Algorithms
TI - Jamming-Resistant MAC Protocols for Wireless Networks
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present three robust overlay networks: First, we present a network that organizes the nodes into an expander and is resistant to even massive adversarial churn. Second, we develop a network based on the hypercube that maintains connectivity under adversarial DoS-attacks. For the DoS-attacks we use the notion of a Omega(log log n)-late adversary which only has access to topological information that is at least Omega(log log n) rounds old. Finally, we develop a network that combines both churn- and DoS-resistance. The networks gain their robustness through constant network reconfiguration, i.e., the topology of the networks changes constantly. Our reconguration algorithms are based on node sampling primitives for expanders and hypercubes that allow each node to sample a logarithmic number of nodes uniformly at random in O(log log n) communication rounds. These primitives are specific to overlay networks and their optimal runtime represents an exponential improvement over known techniques. Our results have a wide range of applications, for example in the area of scalable and robust peer-to-peer systems.
AU - Drees, Maximilian
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 215
T2 - Proceedings of the 28th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA)
TI - Churn- and DoS-resistant Overlay Networks Based on Network Reconfiguration
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Avin, Chen
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Borokhovich, Michael
AU - Haeupler, Bernhard
AU - Lotker, Zvi
ID - 1835
IS - 3
JF - IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.
TI - SplayNet: Towards Locally Self-Adjusting Networks
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - For overlay networks, the ability to recover from a variety of problems like membership changes or faults is a key element to preserve their functionality. In recent years, various self-stabilizing overlay networks have been proposed that have the advantage of being able to recover from any illegal state. However, the vast majority of these networks cannot give any guarantees on its functionality while the recovery process is going on. We are especially interested in searchability, i.e., the functionality that search messages for a specific identifier are answered successfully if a node with that identifier exists in the network. We investigate overlay networks that are not only self-stabilizing but that also ensure that monotonic searchability is maintained while the recovery process is going on, as long as there are no corrupted messages in the system. More precisely, once a search message from node u to another node v is successfully delivered, all future search messages from u to v succeed as well. Monotonic searchability was recently introduced in OPODIS 2015, in which the authors provide a solution for a simple line topology.We present the first universal approach to maintain monotonic searchability that is applicable to a wide range of topologies. As the base for our approach, we introduce a set of primitives for manipulating overlay networks that allows us to maintain searchability and show how existing protocols can be transformed to use theses primitives.We complement this result with a generic search protocol that together with the use of our primitives guarantees monotonic searchability.As an additional feature, searching existing nodes with the generic search protocol is as fast as searching a node with any other fixed routing protocol once the topology has stabilized.
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Setzer, Alexander
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 142
T2 - Proceedings of the 30th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC)
TI - Towards a Universal Approach for Monotonic Searchability in Self-stabilizing Overlay Networks
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Derakhshandeh, Zahra
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - Porter, Alexandra
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 1836
T2 - DNA Computing and Molecular Programming - 22nd International Conference, DNA 22, Munich, Germany, September 4-8, 2016, Proceedings
TI - On the Runtime of Universal Coating for Programmable Matter
VL - 9818
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We initiate the study of network monitoring algorithms in a class of hybrid networks in which the nodes are connected by an external network and an internal network (as a short form for externally and internally controlled network). While the external network lies outside of the control of the nodes (or in our case, the monitoring protocol running in them) and might be exposed to continuous changes, the internal network is fully under the control of the nodes. As an example, consider a group of users with mobile devices having access to the cell phone infrastructure. While the network formed by the WiFi connections of the devices is an external network (as its structure is not necessarily under the control of the monitoring protocol), the connections between the devices via the cell phone infrastructure represent an internal network (as it can be controlled by the monitoring protocol). Our goal is to continuously monitor properties of the external network with the help of the internal network. We present scalable distributed algorithms that efficiently monitor the number of edges, the average node degree, the clustering coefficient, the bipartiteness, and the weight of a minimum spanning tree. Their performance bounds demonstrate that monitoring the external network state with the help of an internal network can be done much more efficiently than just using the external network, as is usually done in the literature.
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - Hinnenthal, Kristian
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Sohler, Christian
ID - 105
T2 - Proceedings of the 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP)
TI - Distributed Monitoring of Network Properties: The Power of Hybrid Networks
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - P. Fekete, Sandor
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Römer, Kay
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 1813
IS - 2
JF - SIGACT News
TI - Algorithmic Foundations of Programmable Matter Dagstuhl Seminar 16271
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Searching for other participants is one of the most important operations in a distributed system.We are interested in topologies in which it is possible to route a packet in a fixed number of hops until it arrives at its destination.Given a constant $d$, this paper introduces a new self-stabilizing protocol for the $q$-ary $d$-dimensional de Bruijn graph ($q = \sqrt[d]{n}$) that is able to route any search request in at most $d$ hops w.h.p., while significantly lowering the node degree compared to the clique: We require nodes to have a degree of $\mathcal O(\sqrt[d]{n})$, which is asymptotically optimal for a fixed diameter $d$.The protocol keeps the expected amount of edge redirections per node in $\mathcal O(\sqrt[d]{n})$, when the number of nodes in the system increases by factor $2^d$.The number of messages that are periodically sent out by nodes is constant.
AU - Feldmann, Michael
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 125
SN - 978-3-319-69083-4
T2 - Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS)
TI - A Self-Stabilizing General De Bruijn Graph
VL - 10616
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Derakhshandeh, Zahra
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 1814
JF - Theor. Comput. Sci.
TI - Universal coating for programmable matter
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper considers the problem of how to efficiently share a wireless medium which is subject to harsh external interference or even jamming. So far, this problem is understood only in simplistic single-hop or unit disk graph models. We in this paper initiate the study of MAC protocols for the SINR interference model (a.k.a. physical model). This paper makes two contributions. First, we introduce a new adversarial SINR model which captures a wide range of interference phenomena. Concretely, we consider a powerful, adaptive adversary which can jam nodes at arbitrary times and which is only limited by some energy budget. Our second contribution is a distributed MAC protocol called Sade which provably achieves a constant competitive throughput in this environment: we show that, with high probability, the protocol ensures that a constant fraction of the non-blocked time periods is used for successful transmissions.
AU - Ogierman, Adrian
AU - Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Schmid, Stefan
AU - Zhang, Jin
ID - 3872
IS - 3
JF - Distributed Computing
SN - 0178-2770
TI - Sade: competitive MAC under adversarial SINR
VL - 31
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - J. Daymude, Joshua
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - W. Richa, Andrea
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 1815
T2 - Algorithms for Sensor Systems - 13th International Symposium on Algorithms and Experiments for Wireless Sensor Networks, ALGOSENSORS 2017, Vienna, Austria, September 7-8, 2017, Revised Selected Papers
TI - Improved Leader Election for Self-organizing Programmable Matter
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Koutsopoulos, Andreas
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 1812
JF - Inf. Comput.
TI - Towards a universal approach for the finite departure problem in overlay networks
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study the consensus problem in a synchronous distributed system of n nodes under an adaptive adversary that has a slightly outdated view of the system and can block all incoming and outgoing communication of a constant fraction of the nodes in each round. Motivated by a result of Ben-Or and Bar-Joseph (1998), showing that any consensus algorithm that is resilient against a linear number of crash faults requires $\tilde \Omega(\sqrt n)$ rounds in an n-node network against an adaptive adversary, we consider a late adaptive adversary, who has full knowledge of the network state at the beginning of the previous round and unlimited computational power, but is oblivious to the current state of the nodes.
Our main contributions are randomized distributed algorithms that achieve consensus with high probability among all except a small constant fraction of the nodes (i.e., "almost-everywhere'') against a late adaptive adversary who can block up to ε n$ nodes in each round, for a small constant ε >0$. Our first protocol achieves binary almost-everywhere consensus and also guarantees a decision on the majority input value, thus ensuring plurality consensus. We also present an algorithm that achieves the same time complexity for multi-value consensus. Both of our algorithms succeed in $O(log n)$ rounds with high probability, thus showing an exponential gap to the $\tilde\Omega(\sqrt n)$ lower bound of Ben-Or and Bar-Joseph for strongly adaptive crash-failure adversaries, which can be strengthened to $\Omega(n)$ when allowing the adversary to block nodes instead of permanently crashing them. Our algorithms are scalable to large systems as each node contacts only an (amortized) constant number of peers in each communication round. We show that our algorithms are optimal up to constant (resp.\ sub-logarithmic) factors by proving that every almost-everywhere consensus protocol takes $\Omega(log_d n)$ rounds in the worst case, where d is an upper bound on the number of communication requests initiated per node in each round. We complement our theoretical results with an experimental evaluation of the binary almost-everywhere consensus protocol revealing a short convergence time even against an adversary blocking a large fraction of nodes.
AU - Robinson, Peter
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Setzer, Alexander
ID - 3422
KW - distributed consensus
KW - randomized algorithm
KW - adaptive adversary
KW - complexity lower bound
SN - 978-1-4503-5799-9/18/07
T2 - Proceedings of the 30th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA)
TI - Breaking the $\tilde\Omega(\sqrt{n})$ Barrier: Fast Consensus under a Late Adversary
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - Hinnenthal, Kristian
AU - Kostitsyna, Irina
AU - Kuhn, Fabian
AU - Rudolph, Dorian
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Strothmann, Thim Frederik
ID - 5764
T2 - Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming
TI - Forming Tile Shapes with Simple Robots
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 5985
T2 - Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Theory and Practice for Integrated Cloud, Fog and Edge Computing Paradigms, TOPIC@PODC 2018, Egham, United Kingdom, July 27, 2018
TI - Relays: Towards a Link Layer for Robust and Secure Fog Computing
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We extend the concept of monotonic searchability~\cite{DBLP:conf/opodis/ScheidelerSS15}~\cite{DBLP:conf/wdag/ScheidelerSS16} for self-stabilizing systems from one to multiple dimensions.
A system is self-stabilizing if it can recover to a legitimate state from any initial illegal state.
These kind of systems are most often used in distributed applications.
Monotonic searchability provides guarantees when searching for nodes while the recovery process is going on.
More precisely, if a search request started at some node $u$ succeeds in reaching its destination $v$, then all future search requests from $u$ to $v$ succeed as well.
Although there already exists a self-stabilizing protocol for a two-dimensional topology~\cite{DBLP:journals/tcs/JacobRSS12} and an universal approach for monotonic searchability~\cite{DBLP:conf/wdag/ScheidelerSS16}, it is not clear how both of these concepts fit together effectively.
The latter concept even comes with some restrictive assumptions on messages, which is not the case for our protocol.
We propose a simple novel protocol for a self-stabilizing two-dimensional quadtree that satisfies monotonic searchability.
Our protocol can easily be extended to higher dimensions and offers routing in $\mathcal O(\log n)$ hops for any search request.
AU - Feldmann, Michael
AU - Kolb, Christina
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 4351
T2 - Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS)
TI - Self-stabilizing Overlays for high-dimensional Monotonic Searchability
VL - 11201
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a self-stabilizing protocol for an overlay network that constructs the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) for an underlay that is modeled by a weighted tree. The weight of an overlay edge between two nodes is the weighted length of their shortest path in the tree. We rigorously prove that our protocol works correctly under asynchronous and non-FIFO message delivery. Further, the protocol stabilizes after O(N^2) asynchronous rounds where N is the number of nodes in the overlay.
AU - Götte, Thorsten
AU - Scheideler, Christian
AU - Setzer, Alexander
ID - 5222
T2 - Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS 2018)
TI - On Underlay-Aware Self-Stabilizing Overlay Networks
VL - 11201
ER -
TY - CONF
AU - Gmyr, Robert
AU - Hinnenthal, Kristian
AU - Kostitsyna, Irina
AU - Kuhn, Fabian
AU - Rudolph, Dorian
AU - Scheideler, Christian
ID - 5986
T2 - 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science, MFCS 2018, August 27-31, 2018, Liverpool, UK
TI - Shape Recognition by a Finite Automaton Robot
ER -