Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders

Y. Yokouchi, T. Maeda, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 52 (2013).

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Abstract
We report the piezoelectric properties of CuO-doped hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics that can be applied as hard-type lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. To date, we have succeeded in synthesizing high-quality KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders by the hydrothermal method, which is based on an ionic reaction at high temperature (around 210 $\,^{\circ}$C) and pressure. Increasing both the piezoelectric constant d and the mechanical quality factor (Qm) is important for resonance-type piezoelectric devices, such as ultrasonic motors and transformers. CuO doping into hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics was examined to realize hard-type lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. By doping with 1.2 mol \% CuO, Qm was increased and the dielectric loss (tan δ) was decreased to 0.5\%. The grain size was also influenced by the amount of CuO doping, which indicates that Qm is related to the density. To achieve a higher Qm value, the grain size is required to be less than 5 µm; however, excessive CuO doping leads to anomalous grain growth. Optimal piezoelectric properties were obtained for 1.2 mol \% CuO-doped (K,Na)NbO3; k31 = 0.32, d31 = -44 pC/N, Qm (radial) = 959, and tan δ= 0.5\%. These characteristics showed that CuO doping with hydrothermal powders is effective for obtaining hard-type ceramics, and the mechanical quality factor is more than ten times higher than that of nondoped hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics. Therefore, compared with the conventional solid-state method, we could succeed in obtaining hard-type ceramics by a simple and short process.
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Journal Title
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics
Volume
52
Issue
7S
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Yokouchi Y, Maeda T, Bornmann P, Hemsel T, Morita T. Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. 2013;52(7S). doi:10.7567/JJAP.52.07HB03
Yokouchi, Y., Maeda, T., Bornmann, P., Hemsel, T., & Morita, T. (2013). Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 52(7S). https://doi.org/10.7567/JJAP.52.07HB03
@article{Yokouchi_Maeda_Bornmann_Hemsel_Morita_2013, title={Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders}, volume={52}, DOI={10.7567/JJAP.52.07HB03}, number={7S}, journal={Japanese Journal of Applied Physics}, author={Yokouchi, Yuriko and Maeda, Takafumi and Bornmann, Peter and Hemsel, Tobias and Morita, Takeshi}, year={2013} }
Yokouchi, Yuriko, Takafumi Maeda, Peter Bornmann, Tobias Hemsel, and Takeshi Morita. “Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders.” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 52, no. 7S (2013). https://doi.org/10.7567/JJAP.52.07HB03.
Y. Yokouchi, T. Maeda, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, and T. Morita, “Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 52, no. 7S, 2013.
Yokouchi, Yuriko, et al. “Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders.” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 52, no. 7S, 2013, doi:10.7567/JJAP.52.07HB03.

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