@inproceedings{13226,
abstract = {The canonical problem for the class Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA) is that of
estimating ground state energies of local Hamiltonians. Perhaps surprisingly,
[Ambainis, CCC 2014] showed that the related, but arguably more natural,
problem of simulating local measurements on ground states of local Hamiltonians
(APX-SIM) is likely harder than QMA. Indeed, [Ambainis, CCC 2014] showed that
APX-SIM is P^QMA[log]-complete, for P^QMA[log] the class of languages decidable
by a P machine making a logarithmic number of adaptive queries to a QMA oracle.
In this work, we show that APX-SIM is P^QMA[log]-complete even when restricted
to more physical Hamiltonians, obtaining as intermediate steps a variety of
related complexity-theoretic results.
We first give a sequence of results which together yield P^QMA[log]-hardness
for APX-SIM on well-motivated Hamiltonians: (1) We show that for NP, StoqMA,
and QMA oracles, a logarithmic number of adaptive queries is equivalent to
polynomially many parallel queries. These equalities simplify the proofs of our
subsequent results. (2) Next, we show that the hardness of APX-SIM is preserved
under Hamiltonian simulations (a la [Cubitt, Montanaro, Piddock, 2017]). As a
byproduct, we obtain a full complexity classification of APX-SIM, showing it is
complete for P, P^||NP, P^||StoqMA, or P^||QMA depending on the Hamiltonians
employed. (3) Leveraging the above, we show that APX-SIM is P^QMA[log]-complete
for any family of Hamiltonians which can efficiently simulate spatially sparse
Hamiltonians, including physically motivated models such as the 2D Heisenberg
model.
Our second focus considers 1D systems: We show that APX-SIM remains
P^QMA[log]-complete even for local Hamiltonians on a 1D line of 8-dimensional
qudits. This uses a number of ideas from above, along with replacing the "query
Hamiltonian" of [Ambainis, CCC 2014] with a new "sifter" construction.},
author = {Gharibian, Sevag and Piddock, Stephen and Yirka, Justin},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)},
pages = {38},
title = {{Oracle complexity classes and local measurements on physical Hamiltonians}},
year = {2020},
}