@inproceedings{34176,
abstract = {{Cascaded H-bridge Converters (CHBs) are a promising solution in converting power from a three-phase medium voltage of 6.6 kV...30 kV to a lower DC-voltage in the range of 100 V...1 kV to provide pure DC power to applications such as electrolyzers for hydrogen generation, data centers with a DC power distribution and DC microgrids. CHBs can be interpreted as modular multilevel converters with an isolated DC-DC output stage per module, require a large DC-link capacitor for each module to handle the second harmonic voltage ripple caused by the fluctuating input power within a fundamental grid period. Without a zero-sequence voltage injection, star-connected CHBs are operated with approximately sinusoidal arm voltages and currents. The floating star point potential enables to utilize different zero-sequence voltage injection techniques such as a third-harmonic injection with 1/6 of the grid voltage amplitude or a Min-Max voltage injection. Both well-known methods have the advantage to reduce the peak arm voltage and thereby the number of required modules by 13.4 % (to √ 3 2). This paper proves analytically that the third-harmonic injection with 1/6 of the grid voltage amplitude reduces the second harmonic voltage ripple by only 15.1 % compared to no-voltage injection for unity power factor operation and balanced grid voltages. Then it is shown, that the Min-Max injection has the often overlooked advantage of reducing the second harmonic voltage ripple by even 18.8 %. By applying the here proposed zero-sequence voltage injection in saturation modulation, the second harmonic voltage ripple of the DC-link capacitors is reduced by even 24.3 %, while still requiring the same number of modules as the Min-Max injection. For a realistic number of reserve modules, the overall energy ripple in the DC-link capacitors is reduced by 40 %.}},
author = {{Unruh, Roland and Schafmeister, Frank and Böcker, Joachim}},
booktitle = {{24th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'22 ECCE Europe)}},
isbn = {{978-9-0758-1539-9}},
keywords = {{Cascaded H-Bridge, Solid-State Transformer, Zero sequence voltage, Third harmonic injection, Capacitor voltage balancing}},
location = {{Hanover, Germany}},
publisher = {{IEEE}},
title = {{{Zero-Sequence Voltage Reduces DC-Link Capacitor Demand in Cascaded H-Bridge Converters for Large-Scale Electrolyzers by 40%}}},
year = {{2022}},
}