Counterfactual Explanations for Concepts in ELH

L.N. Sieger, S. Heindorf, L. Blübaum, A.-C. Ngonga Ngomo, ArXiv:2301.05109 (2023).

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Knowledge bases are widely used for information management on the web, enabling high-impact applications such as web search, question answering, and natural language processing. They also serve as the backbone for automatic decision systems, e.g. for medical diagnostics and credit scoring. As stakeholders affected by these decisions would like to understand their situation and verify fair decisions, a number of explanation approaches have been proposed using concepts in description logics. However, the learned concepts can become long and difficult to fathom for non-experts, even when verbalized. Moreover, long concepts do not immediately provide a clear path of action to change one's situation. Counterfactuals answering the question "How must feature values be changed to obtain a different classification?" have been proposed as short, human-friendly explanations for tabular data. In this paper, we transfer the notion of counterfactuals to description logics and propose the first algorithm for generating counterfactual explanations in the description logic $\mathcal{ELH}$. Counterfactual candidates are generated from concepts and the candidates with fewest feature changes are selected as counterfactuals. In case of multiple counterfactuals, we rank them according to the likeliness of their feature combinations. For evaluation, we conduct a user survey to investigate which of the generated counterfactual candidates are preferred for explanation by participants. In a second study, we explore possible use cases for counterfactual explanations.
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Sieger LN, Heindorf S, Blübaum L, Ngonga Ngomo A-C. Counterfactual Explanations for Concepts in ELH. arXiv:230105109. Published online 2023.
Sieger, L. N., Heindorf, S., Blübaum, L., & Ngonga Ngomo, A.-C. (2023). Counterfactual Explanations for Concepts in ELH. In arXiv:2301.05109.
@article{Sieger_Heindorf_Blübaum_Ngonga Ngomo_2023, title={Counterfactual Explanations for Concepts in ELH}, journal={arXiv:2301.05109}, author={Sieger, Leonie Nora and Heindorf, Stefan and Blübaum, Lukas and Ngonga Ngomo, Axel-Cyrille}, year={2023} }
Sieger, Leonie Nora, Stefan Heindorf, Lukas Blübaum, and Axel-Cyrille Ngonga Ngomo. “Counterfactual Explanations for Concepts in ELH.” ArXiv:2301.05109, 2023.
L. N. Sieger, S. Heindorf, L. Blübaum, and A.-C. Ngonga Ngomo, “Counterfactual Explanations for Concepts in ELH,” arXiv:2301.05109. 2023.
Sieger, Leonie Nora, et al. “Counterfactual Explanations for Concepts in ELH.” ArXiv:2301.05109, 2023.

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