Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study of Pre-Deformed Heavy Copper Wire Wedge Bonds

A. Unger, W. Sextro, S. Althoff, P. Eichwald, T. Meyer, F. Eacock, M. Brökelmann, in: Proceedings of the 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS), San Diego, CA, US, 2014, pp. 289–294.

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Power semiconductor modules are used to control and switch high electrical currents and voltages. Within the power module package wire bonding is used as an interconnection technology. In recent years, aluminum wire has been used preferably, but an ever-growing market of powerful and efficient power modules requires a material with better mechanical and electrical properties. For this reason, a technology change from aluminum to copper is indispensable. However, the copper wire bonding process reacts more sensitive to parameter changes. This makes manufacturing reliable copper bond connections a challenging task. The aim of the BMBF funded project Itsowl-InCuB is the development of self-optimizing techniques to enable the reliable production of copper bond connections under varying conditions. A model of the process is essential to achieve this aim. This model needs to include the dynamic elasto-plastic deformation, the ultrasonic softening effect and the proceeding adhesion between wire and substrate. This paper focusses on the pre-deformation process. In the touchdown phase, the wire is pressed into the V-groove of the tool and a small initial contact area between wire and substrate arise. The local characteristics of the material change abruptly because of the cold forming. Consequently, the pre-deformation has a strong effect on the joining process. In [1], a pre-cleaning effect during the touchdown process of aluminum wires by cracking of oxide layers was presented. These interactions of the process parameters are still largely unknown for copper. In a first step, this paper validates the importance of modeling the pre-deformation by showing its impact on the wire deformation characteristic experimentally. Creating cross-section views of pre-deformed copper wires has shown a low deformation degree compared to aluminum. By using a digital microscope and a scanning confocal microscope an analysis about the contact areas and penetration depths after touchdown has been made. Additionally, it has to be taken into account that the dynamical touchdown force depends on the touchdown speed and the touchdown force set in the bonding machine. In order to measure the overshoot in the force signals, a strain gauge sensor has been used. Subsequently, the affecting factors have been interpreted independently Furthermore, the material properties of copper wire have been investigated with tensile tests and hardness measurements. In a second step, the paper presents finite element models of the touchdown process for source and destination bonds. These models take the measured overshoot in the touchdown forces into account. A multi-linear, isotropic material model has been selected to map the material properties of the copper. A validation of the model with the experimental determined contact areas, normal pressures and penetration depths reveals the high model quality. Thus, the simulation is able to calculate and visualize the three dimensional pre-deformation with an integrated material parameter of the wire if the touchdown parameters of the bonding machine are known. Based on the calculated deformation degrees of wire and substrate, it is probably possible to investigate the effect of the pre-deformation on the pre-cleaning phase in the copper wire bonding.
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Proceedings of the 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS)
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289-294
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Unger A, Sextro W, Althoff S, et al. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study of Pre-Deformed Heavy Copper Wire Wedge Bonds. In: Proceedings of the 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS). San Diego, CA, US; 2014:289-294.
Unger, A., Sextro, W., Althoff, S., Eichwald, P., Meyer, T., Eacock, F., & Brökelmann, M. (2014). Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study of Pre-Deformed Heavy Copper Wire Wedge Bonds. In Proceedings of the 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS) (pp. 289–294). San Diego, CA, US.
@inproceedings{Unger_Sextro_Althoff_Eichwald_Meyer_Eacock_Brökelmann_2014, place={San Diego, CA, US}, title={Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study of Pre-Deformed Heavy Copper Wire Wedge Bonds}, booktitle={Proceedings of the 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS)}, author={Unger, Andreas and Sextro, Walter and Althoff, Simon and Eichwald, Paul and Meyer, Tobias and Eacock, Florian and Brökelmann, Michael}, year={2014}, pages={289–294} }
Unger, Andreas, Walter Sextro, Simon Althoff, Paul Eichwald, Tobias Meyer, Florian Eacock, and Michael Brökelmann. “Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study of Pre-Deformed Heavy Copper Wire Wedge Bonds.” In Proceedings of the 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS), 289–94. San Diego, CA, US, 2014.
A. Unger et al., “Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study of Pre-Deformed Heavy Copper Wire Wedge Bonds,” in Proceedings of the 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS), 2014, pp. 289–294.
Unger, Andreas, et al. “Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study of Pre-Deformed Heavy Copper Wire Wedge Bonds.” Proceedings of the 47th International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS), 2014, pp. 289–94.

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